Category: Education

 Southwest Airlines

Southwest Airlines Company is a low-fare major domestic airline, continues to differentiate itself from other low-fare carriers, offering a reliable product with exemplary Customer Service. In the business for 40 years, Southwest Airlines was incorporated in Texas and Commenced Customer Service on June 19, 1971 with three Boeing 737 aircraft serving three Texas cities—Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio.

Today, Southwest Airlines is the nations’ largest carrier in term s of originating domestic passengers boarded serving 73 cities in 38 states. On May 2, 2011, Southwest Airlines completed the acquisition of AirTran Holdings, Inc., and now operates AirTran Airways as a wholly owned subsidiary. Southwest Airlines has among the lowest cost structures in the domestic airline industry, consistently offers the lowest and simplest fares and has one of the best overall Customer Service records. Southwest Airlines is the most honored airlines in the world for its commitment to the triple bottom line of performance, people, and planet. (

Rationale Statement

The rationale behind the Needs Assessment for Southwest Airlines is essential in the training practices to analyze who need training, to identify tasks and knowledge, skills, and behaviors that need to be emphasized for performance improvement, and to identify pressure points concerning knowledge and skills deficit. To identify a solution to performance issues, identify proper learning sequence in terms of content, objectives, or methods needed for an effective training program, identify whether Southwest Airlines is benefiting from its investment, and identify training participants.  

Needs Assessment for Southwest Airlines

Assessment Analysis Questions

Needs Assessment Technique

Organizational Analysis

  • Strategic Direction
  • Training support for Managers, and Employees.
  • Training Resources (Noe, 2009)
How does the training program align with the business strategic needs? (Noe, 2009)Are there experts available who can help develop the program
content and ensure that employees understand the needs of the
business as the training program are developed? (Noe, 2009)How will employees know that the training program is an
opportunity for rewards, punishment or waste of their time? (Noe,
2009)Are there sufficient resources for training?(Noe, 2009)
Documented training materials and records. (Noe, 2009)   
Person AnalysisPerson Characteristics (Noe, 2009)

  • Basic Skills

   Cognitive Ability
Reading Level

  • Self-efficacy
  • Awareness of training needs


  • Understand what, how, when to perform
  • Situational constraints
  • Social Support
  • Opportunity to perform


  • Expectations for learning and performance


  • Norms
  • Benefits
  • Rewards


  • Frequency
  • Specificity
  • Detail
What prior skills, knowledge and abilities do employees need to accomplish the business objectives?  (Noe, 2009)What verbal, quantities ability, and reasoning abilities do
employees have to process understanding of the learning materials?
(Noe, 2009)Are there nontraining intervention plan in place for training opportunities for all employees? (Noe, 2009)How will training meet the needs of the organization.(Noe, 2009)Who should attend training to achieve the job performing standards? (Noe, 2009)What are the employees’ attitudes toward training?Are there incentives in place to reward employees’ achievement? (Noe, 2009)What measurement is in place to determine proper performance or consequences for non-performance? (Noe, 2009)What feedback processes are in place to provide employees
evident of performance? For example, What were the greatest problem
encountered as a new coach and trainer? What mistakes were made, if
any?(Noe, 2009)
The employees who attend training at Southwest Airlines (Noe, 2009):

  • Technical services
  • Administrative services
  • Information services
  • Aircraft operations
  • People services
  • Managing Directors
  • Supervisors and manager
  • Directors.

Questionnaires are inexpensive and data can be collected
from a large pool of employees. In addition, organizational analysis
using questionnaires allow employees to participate in the needs
assessment process without compromising the functionality of their
job. (Noe, 2009)

Questionnaires results will be verified ensure consistence in performance. (Noe, 2009)

Task Analysis Do you have employees with the skills, knowledge, and abilities to compete in the marketplace? (Noe, 2009)What impact in the organization can training helps in performance improvement? (Noe, 2009) Online Technology software
monitor system to track employees performance and identify training
needs and provide employees with feedback regarding their skill
strengths and weaknesses.(Noe, 2009)



Reference (n.d.).
Noe, R. A. (2010). Employee training and development. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin.




The only time training is needed, according to Stolovitch and Keeps (2012), is when there is a deficiency in skills and knowledge. However, for the purpose of an effective to take place (Noe, 2010), identifies several training methods that involve action in learning.

Action in Learning Methods:

  1. Experiential training Program: Is tied to a specific business problem. Trainees are moved outside their personal comfort zones, but the zone does not reduce the trainees motivation or ability to understand the purpose of the program. In order; however, for this learning to be successful, multiple learning modes are used, which are audio, visual, and kinesthetic.

  2. the Adventure training Program: Focus on the development of teamwork and leadership skills through structured activities, which include training in the wilderness–outdoors, drum circles, and cooking classes.

  3. Team Training Program: Coordinates the performance of individuals who work together to achieve a common goal. For the successful accomplishment of this type of training, participants’ communicate, coordinate, adapts, and complete tasks objectively. The knowledge requires participants to have mental models or memory structures that allows them to function effectively in an unanticipated or new situations.

  4. Cross Training Program: Provide understanding and practices for each type of skills so that the participants are prepared to step in and take the place of a team member who may temporarily be on leave, etc.

  5. Coordination Training Program: Instructs the team in how to share information and decision-making responsibilities to maximize performance. The best group for this type of training is commercial aviation or surgical teams who are in charge of monitoring different aspects of equipment and environment.

  6. Team Leader Training: Is the type of training that team managers or facilitators receives. It involves training managers on how to resolve conflict within the team coordinated activities or other team skills. Of course, employees need technical skills that can help them accomplish various job functions.

Action Learning: This learning gives teams an actual problem and have them work to solve it, and commit the problem to an action plan. It also holds the members’ accountable for carrying out the plan.

Six Sigma and Black Belt Training: Provides employees with measurement and statistical tools to help reduce defects and cut costs. The participants in this training are required to attend workshops and complete assignments that are coached by expert instructors. The training consists of 4-day sessions for 16 weeks. After the training, the participants must demonstrate their learning achievement.


Noe, R. A. (2010). Employee training and development. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Stolovitch, H. D., & Keeps, E. J. (2012). Training ain‘t performance. Alexandria, VA: ASTD Press.

Communicating Effectively


How did your interpretation of the message change from one modality to the next?

The tone of the email was not strong enough to engage or provide Mark with the urgency of getting his missing piece of the report to another team member in order for her to complete her part of the project on time. In addition, in the email stating, “Let me know as soon as possible when you think you can get your report sent over to me” should have been written with more power and conviction. For example, Mark, I need to get your report by Noon today. Your report is a crucial part of the project, and if I do not receive your part of the report today, it will cause delays in the project and could cause a problem for our client, as well.

The voicemail message sounded as if she is begging Mark to cooperate with her and not the entire project team. It might be that Mark does not care about her completing the project on time or understand the timeline due date to complete the project. Her message should have conveyed to Mark the urgency of the team not completing the project on time because of his missing report.


F2F sound and looked playful, no seriousness conveyed in the request. In order to get and gain Mark attention and trust, the video should have shown credibility in the facial expressions and tone of voice.



What factors influenced how you perceived the message?

I think the factors that influenced my perception of what the message implied is how everyone took for granted that Mark understood what the message was conveying. In each of the scenarios, there should have been clear and concise direction for Mark to follow.  As well as follow-up messages, asking if he understood the message and the urgency of his part of the report are to the overall successful completion of the project.  It implies how easy it is for communication breakdown to occur.

What did you learn that would help you communicate more effectively with others in the future?

According to Conger (as cited in Portny, Mantel, Meredith, Shafer, Sutton, & Kramer, 2008), successful project manager must be skillful at persuading others if they want to meet the demands of the project. One thing Conger talks about are the four skills of powerful persuasion: (1) effective persuaders must be credible to those they are trying to persuade; (2) they must find goals held in common with those being persuaded; (3) they must use “vivid” language and compelling evidence; (4) they must connect with the emotions of those they are trying to persuade. (18)

Informing senior management about any lack of cooperation from team members is critical in order to resolve the problem or the project impasse. If this is done in a timely, honest, and proactive manner, it will build trust between the members. (Portny et al., 2008)


Portny, S. E., Mantel, S. J., Meredith, J. r., Shafer, S. M., & Sutton, M. M., &Kramer, B. E. (2008). Project management: Planning, scheduling, and controlling projects. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

What do you think the perceptions of distance learning will be in the future (in 5–10 years; 10–20 years)?

     Distance learning has change in acceptance, in my opinion, since my enrollment at Walden University and even as I am writing this paper.  However, the perception of distance learning in the next 5-10 or more years must focus more on student-centered learning and control, and the revamping of instructional paradigm. The next generations of learners are not in positions to wait for instructional posting and responses within 24-hours. These “new age” student are accustom to real-time interaction and afford the technologies that can provide them with quick-time results.  The next years are critical stages to employ the power of new technologies and ideas to improve learning for attracting generation X scholars and practitioners to distance education.  As we know of distance education, today it is rapidly approaching a dinosaur age of extinction because distance education has already reformed the improvement of technologies, open source, and first-time log on to data. The 160-year-old correspondence-study methods of instructional delivery are out-of-date, and classroom now are adapted to the Web approaches to learning are often ineffective because they do little to connect the transformational potential of technology. (Simonson et al., 2009)

     As technology developed and improved over time for the next 10-20 years, so should instructional design. Referring to Fordism, Neo-Fordism, Post-Fordism (as cited in Simonson et al, 2009) recommends an altogether centralized and coast-to-coast distance education provider to gain economies of balance by offering courses to a mass market that justifies a significant investment in supplementary costly course materials. They vindicated that this method increase organizational control and an extreme division of labor as the production process are fragmenting into an increasing number of component task or production, which guides organizational strategy. (Simonson et al., 2009, p. 53)

     The approach to technologies such as mobile technologies (4-G), virtual online labs, Pocket computer and /or tablets, IM communication and information (Internet) access in real time and personal learning environments are mainstreaming shifting control of the learning processes away from institutions and into the hands of learners. (Simonson et al., 2009)

Instructional designers must envision the future of distance instruction in the pre-planning stages to include more focus on international learners, as well.

How can you as an instructional designer be a proponent for improving societal perceptions of distance learning?

     It is imperative to design learning instruction from the perceptive of the students, and strength of the institution by focusing on the utilization of the ADDIE model, as well as additional learning theories, for sequencer guidance.  It is my position to inform others about the effectiveness of distance education because there is no different between the distance learners and the traditional learners. (Simonson et al., 2009) However, with some exception, distance learners are more motivated, discipline, and focus on learning either for employment opportunities, business needs, or taking advantage of new technologies. (Simonson et al., 2009)

     The instructor of distance learning is just as dedicated to teaching as they are in the traditional college campuses. Though students and instructors are separated, the instructors’ make it their business to engage students’ participation and connectivity with them through threaded discussions, blog, wikis, telephone, email, and chats.  Despite the separation, students are always connected to the source of instruction through the various degrees of technologies. Societal need to know as well that distance education is not for everybody, and that instruction setting will dictate the appropriate choices for instructional methods. For example, live instruction (synchronous), such as television based or audio/video teleconferencing to some learners these might be effective. However, teaching in an online environment, for instance, other approaches are necessary for the instructor to provide students with enough collaboration to keep them on track while encouraging them to become skilled at new experiences. (Simonson et al., 2009)

How will you be a positive force for continuous improvement in the field of distance education?

     What can I do for someone else? That is the first question. Be a direct influence in the lives of the human being who might not be able to continue their education through traditional methods. To help them acquire a deeper, richer, and invigorating learning experience through the power of distance education.  Provide them with adequate information about distance education so; they can make  formed decision to learn at a distance. I will continue to volunteer my familiarity with distance learning to help others to realize the value in distance education.


Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., Zvacek, S. (2011). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education, (4th Ed.). Boston: MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

The Impact of Open Source

Yale University Open Source Course

Course Analysis


Course: EVST 255: Environmental Politics and Law: A Certification Course for Design and Green Architecture


Course Overview: This course is a case study of potential danger to the environment and the national security. It looks at different areas of danger to the environment such as pesticides, air pollution, consumer products, plastics, land use, urban growth and sprawl, public/private transit and drinking water. In each case, Dr. John Wargo reviews the structure of law and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the law as it pertains to the environmental issues.

The course EVST 255 is one of Yale University’s open source courseware. This course is offered free of charge to the individual who wants to enhance his/her learning skills.

Does the course appear to be carefully pre-planned and designed for a distance-learning environment? If, so, how? If not, in what ways?

     According to Morrison, Ross, Kalman, and Kemp, 2011, the goal of instructional design is to make learning more efficient, effective, and less difficult, as well as to save time and money. Therefore, this course does not meet those requirements because effective learning, according to Simonson, Smaldino, Albright, & Zvacek, 2009, involve several components, the learner, the content, the method, materials, and the environment, including the technology. This course, however, provided limited planning for distance learning. For example, in a distance classroom the instructor should place emphases on visual cues. This is an important part of instructional design because if the visual cues are missing, students my feel alienated and will tune out the instructor, according to Simonson et al, 2009. “The instructional development process must be based on the unique characteristics and needs of students, meshed with the teaching study of the instructor and the course goals and content. Interaction must be maximized, the visual potential of the medium must be explored and time must be addressed” (Simonson et al, 2009). For those learner who learn best by auditory instructions can focus on the instructor’s words and generally listen better because there are fewer distractions, especially at sites with only one student” (Simonson, 2009, p. 169). The instruction did provide for the visual cues portion of the instruction, but not all requirements for effective distance learning were met.

     The portion of the course that did not meet the careful pre-planned and designed for a distance-learning environment included the student group work, content, and technologies. Group interaction is essential for student achievement in distance learning according to Simonson et al, 2009, “Group participation helps to support a social environment where the instructor present course material allowing the students groups to discuss case theories and concepts covered in the course, and then discuss the material for question and reach consensus on a solution to the problems.” In addition, in the distance learning environment, learning must be design so that students have an active role in learning—mentally, physical, socially, and emotionally (Simonson, Smaldino, Albright, & Zvacek, 2009). Dr. Wargo did not feature in his teaching strategies any diverse instructional formats such as group interaction, collaboration, or reciprocal teaching.

     The technology used to present the video was distracting because there were constant interruptions or breaks in the recording. According to Simonson et al, 2009 instructional designer should be prepared in the event that technical problems might occur. “There should be a backup plan for students with projects and assignments independent of the instructor and alternative means of communication, such as fax, phone, and email, and these plans must be discussed with the students in advance” (Simonson et al, 2009, p. 129).

     This course content should have reflected upon the entire learning. For example, time is essential in distance learning. The instructor time should have gone into analyzing the content for effective delivery, student’s feedback, and relevant time constraints. Simonson et al, 2009 stated that, “Instructor should start with the general goals, and followed by more specific goals and objectives; the nature of the structure of the content can be made to fall into place. The resulting framework of information about the content helps the instructor decide the value and importance of specific information to the total instructional package.”

Does the course follow the recommendations for online instruction as listed in your course textbook? Which does it follow? In what ways? Which does it not follow?

     The answer is yes and no because the textbook recommendation according to Simonson, Smaldino, Albright, and Zvacek, 2009, follow guidelines that include units, modules, and topics. The course does follow the topic guidelines in part, because it explained and clarified the course content, but it does not provide the central chunks of instruction for the complete units and modules. “Topics are organized into modules that are further organized into units that are equivalent to a semester credit traditionally offered using 15, 50-minute class session (Simonson et al, 2009).

     The content guidelines did follow the recommended textbook instruction that places emphasis on the use of visual media. The media instruction included a PowerPoint presentation and the content was organized by the topic.

     The instruction/teaching guidelines did not followed the textbook recommended guidelines because it did not provide different ways for the students to fulfill their other obligation such as being full-time employees, family, social situation, etc. The instructor could have designed his teaching strategy utilizing:

  • One module per week,

  • Communicate via email at least once per week,

  • Chat once per week,

  • Two to three threaded discussion per topic or six to ten questions per week,

  • Instructor comments on discussions as part of threaded discussion board

  •  Provide progress reports (grades) submitted to student every two week.

     The resources and the instructional setting are important to consider in the learning environment because students need to know what resources are available to them. Will they have access to resources to communicate with the instructor or adequate accommodation for the instructional setting? Will they be able to move around or move tables and chairs, if needed (Simonson et al, 2009)? Those attributes were not considered in the design of the course instruction.

Did the course designer implement course activities that maximize active learning for the students?” If yes, in what ways? If not, how is it deficient?

     The answer is no because the course did not provide the learning instruction that should have been organized with more inclusive learning activities to engaged the entire learning process for the students to learn. The learning deficit according to Simonson et al, 2009:

  • The instructor should have provided course calendar, activities and expectations clearly stated as possible.

  • The instructor should have stated the purpose of the assignment and provide links to relevant online resources.

  • The instructor should have identified the required comments of the assignment, grading criteria, due date, and point of value for the course.

  • The instructor should have provided instructions for submitting the assignment.

  • The instructor should keep students informed of all changes to instruction.

  • The instructor should have integrate the power of the Web into the course

  • The instructor should have applied adult learning principles with the nontraditional students. For example, if students are working adults, design the course to include the basic principles of adult learning. Adults are more self-directed and have specific reasons for taking the course.

  • The instructor should have extended course reading beyond the text. For example, reading recourses from the Web and additional reading resources.

  • The instructor should have provided instruction to train the students on how to use the course website.

     Although, we as instructional designers recognized that there is no known way to predict the successful outcome of teaching, we know that teaching at a distance (Simonson et al., 2009) places the students’ needs before the organizational convenience and at the center of planning and decision-making.



Morrison, G., Ross, S,m Kalman, H. & Kemp, R. (2011). Designing Effective Instruction. Hoboken, NJ:: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., & Zvacek, S. (2009). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education, (4th Ed.). Boston: MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Problem Statement:

A biodiesel manufacturing plant needs to improve its poor safety record. The plant needs a best practice solution for its core practices as well as being able to communicate across the board with staff on different work schedule. The plant supervisors also want to be abreast of staff demonstration of their learning from each modules.

Solution Technology: Schoology or Prezi


Schoology is a social network-based tool that allows trainers,teachers and students to interact with each other through technological prerequisites and learning components. The strategy of Schoology is parallel to that of Facebook in which exchanges take place, messaging, statuses update, and information and other media shared within a classroom network. (Manning, Brooks, Crutteau, Diedrich, Moser, & Zwiefellhofer, 2011)

Manning et al., (2011) noted two main contextual features of Schoology: Interactive communication and academic information exchange. 

The features of interactive communication allow instructional designers to generate discussion queries, work in partnership with groups, and display coursework for active communication, post quizzes to validate dynamic knowledge. Supervisors, managers (teachers, parents) as well as the employees (students) can place questions and concerns in the discussion board for speedy access and replies. Send and receive email, quickly. (Simonson, Smaldino, Albright, & Zvacek, 2009)

The benefits: 

 a)     Employees participating in a Safety class; for example, can ask questions and post comments about classmates’  reviews, concerns, questions or understanding of learning protocol. The trainers, supervisors, managers, (teachers) etc., can partake in and invigilator student-led discussions comparable to online discussion in Facebook, Twitter, etc.

b)     Employees that are on diverse shifts, vacation, or out sick, still have access to the sequence learning 24/7. Trainers or supervisors (teachers) can upload videos of safety learning sequence on YouTube, or other multimedia devices.

c)     Supervisors (teachers) have validation privileges’ of employees learning progression.

d)     Schoology easily integrate with other software applications.

 The features of academic communication are the ability to deliver academic information to the employees (teachers or students).

The benefits:

a)     Schoology access increases communication between management and employees and holds them accountable for their educational tasks.

b)     The employees (teachers or students) within Schoology can access their grades, attendance records; participate in lively discussions, and management feedback on electronically submitted assignments.


Prezi, according to Fischer (2011) is the cloud-based presentation software that opens up a new world between whiteboards and slides. The zoomable canvas makes it fun to explore ideas and the connections between them.”

Manning, Brooks, Crotteau, Diedrich, Moser, & Zwiefelhofer, (2011) post “Prezi presentations are visually appealing and extremely easy to use.”

The Prezi technology tool allows trainers, teachers, and trainees to interact collectively with each other to enhance their learning and teaching experiences. Since Prezi easily integrate with other software application, it can easily become the best practice application for the workplace environment.

Since there is, a working culture engaging in independent work times, Coldeway (2011) framework addresses this problem. Coldeway, (2011) post “Combinations of time and place result in four approaches to education: same-time, same-place education (ST-SP); different-time, same-place education (DT-SP); same-time, different-place education (ST-DP); and different-time, different-place education (DT-DP)” (Simonson et al., 2009,p. 10). What does this mean for your business? It means having the technology accessible 24/7 for all employees; whether shift working, traveling for business purposes, on vacation, or out sick.

The Features:

  1.  Prezi is visually captivating presentations that lead the audience down a path of discovery.

  2. Prezi presentations allow for the use of a wide variety of media including, videos, jpg files, pdf files, and YouTube videos.

  3. Prezi offers free educational accounts.

  4. Prezi stores presentations on the Website or standalone application on the computer.  

The Benefits:

  1.  24/7 access to the technology

  2. Access to free accounts

  3. Create concept maps of the content

  4. Employees are responsible for their learning


The rationale behind selecting these tools is the ease of integration with other software, making it easy for the corporation to integrate technology into their core business practices. The accessibility of both technology is a plus for the organization with a 24/7 office hour.

In addition, Prezi the cloud-based tool for presentation is a convenient choice because it allows zoomable designs that appear to leaf of the page. However, Schoology is the ease to creating learning sequences’ such as modules, assessment, surveys, etc., without additional software.

More important, both technologies allow interaction between the teachers and students or trainers and the employees.  Souder (1993) observation of interaction revealed: “…the distance learners in the study were observed to gain much more than a traditional education from their experiences. The students in the study gained a broadened network of valuable colleagues” (Simonson et al., 2009, p. 76).

The successful use of Schoology:

Melissa writes, two months in to the school-wide Schoology  implementation, her teachers have used the feature to give students access to course content and key dates. Some have chosen to post major calendar events such as quiz/test dates and project due dates. Others posted daily assignments. Melissa sees this as an advantage because if a student is absent from class, he/she can access the assignment.

Melissa post, “Linsly School Biology and AP Chemistry teachers use Schoology for PowerPoint presentations. The science instructor uses the screen recording software called Camtasis to record her lectures, and put them in Schoology. All teachers within the school use Schoology for assignment feature to collect and return digital work to the students. Two teachers used Schoology to collect a PowerPoint project from students.  Another item that was interesting to the teachers was the “group” feature. Melissa stated that the Forensics teacher created a group for her Forensics team for communicating practice schedules and pertinent reminders.”

Martin of  St. Gregory writes, “This year, about half a dozen of our teachers are piloting a new program called Schoology, which functions simultaneously as a learning management system for teachers and a social network platform for students and teachers. Teachers are able to post their course syllabus and assignments, and, if they choose, track student attendance, maintain a grade book, provide students resources and links, and organize materials into folders for better organization.”

Martin posted additional comments as well: “Schoology provides students a better tool to manage their various courses, keep track of assignments, and benefit from the calendar functions, which they can use as a planner for all courses operating within Schoology.  Now, certainly many other LMS (learning management systems) offer all this, but what Schoology adds is a social network element with a look and feel very similar to Facebook, making it more intuitive and natural for regular Facebook users.   Students can use a vehicle they are so familiar with, Facebook style posting, commenting, threading and linking, and do so with their classes to enhance their learning.”

The successful use of Prezi:

Orlando writes,One alternative to boring PowerPoint slides is to use Prezi. This web-based tool allows the user to create a single canvas of text, images, videos, etc. online. The presenter flies from location to location on the canvas, sometimes turning elements upside down, sometimes zooming in or out, to explore the relationship between ideas. Like a painter, the canvas draws the developer to choose visual imagery to create the presentation, in contrast to the text-heavy, outline-based methodology of PowerPoint. I have abandoned PowerPoint entirely and now use Prezi exclusively for my presentations. This is a remarkably freeing experience.”

Dawson writes,I am getting better using visuals for keynotes and presentations than the traditional PowerPoint. The launch of our Transformation of Business framework has provided a great opportunity to use Prezi. The entire story layout on a page and Prezi enables me to zoom in, pan across, and illustrate the key points in the framework.”


Dawson, R. (2011). New Prezi: The transformation of business. [Blog message]. Retrieved from http://

Fishcher, A. S. (2011). Prezi. Retrieved from

Manning, C., Brooks, W., Crotteau, V., Diedrich, A., Moser, J., & Zwiefelholfer, A. (2011). Tech tools for teacher, by teachers: Bridging teachers and students. Wisonsin English Journal. Retrieved from, 53(1), pp. 24-27.

Martin, J. (2011). Schoology at St. Gregory: A new experiment. [Blog message]. Retrieved from

Melissa. (2010). Early success with schoology. [Blog message]. Retrieved from

Orlando, J. (2010). Prezi: A better way of doing presentations. [Blog message]. Teaching with Technology, Trends in Higher Education. Retrieved from

Schoology. (2011).

Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., & Zvacek, S. (2011). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education, (4th Ed.). Boston: MA: Pearson Education, Inc.










Defining Distance Learning

Distance Learning


What is distance learning?

     Referring to (Simonson, Smaldino, Albright, & Zvacek, 2009), distance learning is “Institution-based and formal education where the learning group is separated, and where interactive telecommunication systems are used to connect learners, resources, and instructors.” Those are the four main component of the definition of distance learning. Moreover, Coldeway of South Dakota’s Dakota State University provides four practical approaches to the definition of distance learning. For example, Coldeway states that there is a “Combination of time and place results in the four approaches to education:

  • Same-time, same-place education (ST-SP), means learning takes place at the same time and in the same place, which is a self-contained classroom that is teacher-centered.

  • Different-time, same-place education (DT-SP), means learning takes place at different time and in the same place allowing individual learning to occur in a learning center, or that multiple sections of the same classes are offer so students can attend the class in the same place at a time they choose.

  • Same time, different place education (ST-DP), means that learning takes place at same time, but in different places.

  • Different time, different place education (DT-DP) when communications systems are used.”

     The first two types of education are synchronous and the latter two are asynchronous learning.

     Further, explanation of distance learning Rudolf Manfred Delling (1985) stated that distance education, in general, is a planned and systematic activity that comprises the choice, didactic preparation, and presentation of teaching material as well as the supervision and support of student learning” (Simonson et al., 2009). Finally, the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Educational; research and Improvement defines distance education as “the application of telecommunications and electronic devices which enable students an learners to receive instruction that originates from some distance location (Simonson et al., 2009).

Personal Definition and Observation of Distance learning:

     Before this course, my definition and learning was very limited. My prior learning experience as it pertains to distance learning was analyzing, designing, and developing course curriculum for the company’s internal communication platform—the Intranet. My limited responsibility was to create and upload the learning instruction onto the platform. My personal definition as I know it today is Distance learning provides access to students/learners across the globe. Where the instructional designer are afford the opportunity to create meaningful learning sequences that incorporate learners from different places and times, as well as same time and places.

     During this course, my personal definition has evolved. It means that distance learning provide the foundation for the instructional design to build learning sequences to achieve positive outcomes including, but not limited to, time involve in the reinforcement of the instruction. As I further contextualizes, distance-learning start by examining the performance problem and designing the most appropriate means of which the learning should take place. As well, the instructional designer considers the learners needs above the content; and therefore, provide learner-centered learning instruction.

     Moreover, there is a continue emerging of the distance learning definition as well. Referring to Edwards (1995) open learning is “A way in which using mass produced courseware to a mass market…Open learning places greater emphasis on the current specific needs and/or market available by recognizing local requirements and different instead of delivering an established curriculum.” Recently, virtual school has emerged as the expansion of technology continues to develop. Virtual, according to (Simonson et al., 2009) is defined as something quasi or pseudo—distance education is about as real as actual as education can be.”


     As an instructional design student, I envision the continued growth and progression of distance education. In the future, classroom instruction as we know it today might be a thing of a distance past as more and more technologies for distance learning continue to improve. I believe that the next generation of learners will predict how their learning will take place. I see a Facebook type of parallel technology in view for the next generation of learners, as well as iPhones, Tablets, Notepads, or something new altogether. I see professors, teachers, and trainer growing more and more into multiple roles of teaching at a distance because the future is moving rapidly into new technological frontier.

     Universities that are more open are going to spring into existence, perhaps as we sleep. Referring to Holmberg (1986) states, “The Open University brought heightened prestige to distance education and spurred the establishment of similar institutions in industrial nations such as West Germany, Japan, and Canada as well as less-developed nation as Sri Lanka and Pakistan.”

     Who has to say that these trends will not gain more advantage, power, and strength to influence the way we learn at a distance today?



Coldeway, D. (2009). Distance education. In Simonson et al, Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance eduation. (4th Ed.), (pp. 10-11). Boston, MA: Pearson.

 Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., Zvacek, S. (2011). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education. (4th Ed.). Boston: MA: Pearson Education, Inc.


Mind Mapping of Future Distance Learning


In view of the fact that studying the course on Multimedia Design and Development as an Instructional Design and Technology student, I learned that Multimedia design can be an effective learning experience for new beginners. The word “multimedia” was a confusing terminology to me because I thought that multimedia only depicted graphical illustration on TVs, magazines and books. In this course, I realized that media is intermediate between tenues and the aspirates—a voiced stop, and the word multi encompasses many communication outlets (Merriam –Webster), which is a pleonasm. Therefore, when putting both words together, a whole new world of sound, video, animation, film, music, text, narration, graphic, etc., unlocks our imagination. Multimedia personifies the consolidation of information.

The interworking of multimedia and the Internet are two powerful tools that link communication together throughout the entire world. As a student of instructional design and technology, I learned that multimedia requires different ways to approach writing. The text and type of writing that is applicable for multimedia are abundantly devised and designed to be appreciated by all audiences.  For example, Dr. Amy Pointer (2011) Effective use of Text, proposed that text payoffs are legibility, readability, clear communication, audience attention and higher return. When creating multimedia for instructional purposes the most important scaffold to consider is text. According to Dr. Amy Pointer (2011), text should be creative, engaging, and visually stimulating because text and type matters.

Equally, Dr. Richard Mayer’s Ten Principles of Multimedia personifies multimedia learning and design. Many of Dr. Mayer’s principles are dependable with decreasing extraneous cognitive load, such as excluding extraneous and redundant material. Presenting words and pictures near each other and in close temporal contiguity also decreases extraneous load because it increases the opportunity to have both verbal and graphic together in working memory. The advantage of narration over written text, according to Dr. Mayer, is that narration and pictures occupy separate “channels”. Written text, like pictures, at the start resides in the visual channel and then is converted back to speech to create a verbal representation (Mayer 2011). These interpretations have much intensity. Dr. Mayer also presents functional applications of his model, as characterized by the ten principles of multimedia design. (See Table 1, Table 2, and Table 3)

 Table 1

Three Principles for managing Essential Processes


Segmenting Principle: People learn better when a narrated animation is presented in learner-paced segments rather than as a continuous presentation. Pre-training Principle: People learn better from a narrated animation when they already know the names and characteristics of essential components. Modality Principle: People learn better from graphics with spoken text rather than graphics with printed text.


Table 2

Two Principles for Fostering Generative Processing


Multimedia Principle: People learn better from words and pictures than from words alone. This allows people to build connections between their verbal and pictorial models. Personalization Principle: People learn better from a multimedia lesson when words are in conversational style rather than formal style. If people feel as though they are engaged in a conversation, they will make more effort to understand what the other person is saying.


Table 3

Five Principles for reducing extraneous processes


Coherence Principle: (less is more).People learns better when extraneous material is excluded from multimedia learning. Dr. Meyer believes that less is more, which means that students learn better when extraneous words, pictures and sounds are excluded rather than included. Redundancy Principle: People learn better from animation with narration than from animation with narration and text except when the onscreen text is short, highlights the key action described in the narration, and is placed next to the portion of the graphic that it describes. Spatial Contiguity Principle: People learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented near rather than far from each other on the page or screen. Temporal Contiguity Principle: (best use of sequencing of words and pictures). People learn better when corresponding narration and animation are presented simultaneously rather than successively (i.e. the words are spoken at the same time they are illustrated in the animation—hear with your ears, see with your eyes). Modality Principle: (best use of visual and auditory channels). Dr. Mayer states that students learn better from animation and narration, than from animation and on-screen text. Using graphics with audio improves learning. Redundancy Principle: (best use of text and audio). Dr. Meyer states that graphics with audio and redundant text can hurt a creative project. As instructional designer, we must avoid reading on-screen text because student learn better from animation and narration, than animation, narration and on-screen text.


The impending learning of multimedia is far-reaching and will continue to advance, as it does, multimedia education will reach the crowning point of its perfection and expand the scope from where it is today to a more comprehendible level in the future. As an instructional design student, I plan continue my education in this field and absorb all that is possible to absorb about multimedia design and more.

Challenged assessment of Dr. Mayer’s principles

Some critique has been in contradiction of the Cognitive Theory Multimedia Learning (CTML) and the ten principles of Dr. Mayer. For example, Astleitner and Wiesner (2004) stated that the model does not take motivational elements into consideration. They believe that motivation can impact learning and consume memory resources and thereby affecting cognitive load. [[1]]

Likewise, Reed mentions a concern about the lack of explanation for the integration process in the Cognitive Theory Multimedia Learning. Reed asked, “How are the verbal and visual representations combined with prior knowledge in the working memory?” And, “Are the two representations merged to either verbal or visual, or does it take some other abstract form?” [[2]]

Conversely, Gall (2004) feels that Mayer’s research does not consider video and non-narrative audio. He believes that Mayer research is centered on learning about physical and mechanical systems. Gall further believes that a question regarding the applicability of Mayer’s results to other situations arises from these constraints. [[3]]      



Mayer, R. (2001). Multimedia Learning. . International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. Retrieved from

Merriam. (1973). New Collegiate Dictionary. Springfield, Massachusetts. USA: G. and C. Merriam Company.

Pointer, A. (2011). Effective use of Text: Media Presentation.

[1]. Astleitner, H. & Wiesner, C. (2004). An Integrated Model of Multimedia Learning and Motivation found in Journal of educational Multimedia Hypermedia. Volume 13, pp. 3-21. Retrieved from

[2]. Gall, J. E. (2004). [Review of the book Multimedia Learning, by R. E. Mayer] found in Educational Technology research and Development. Retrieved from,Volume 52(3), pp.87-90.

[3]. Reed, S. (206). Cognitive Architectures for Multimedia Learning found in Educational Psychologist. Volume 41(2), pp. 87-98. Retrieved from

 What did you find surprising or striking as you furthered your knowledge about how people learn?

The unanticipated thing that I found the most about this class was the delusion that I had going into the class. My understanding at first was that learning theories and instruction was about common learning. However, much to my amazement, this class delivered a comprehensive collection of knowledge that dealt with each specific skills and how each of these theories are used to regulate the best approach for developing instructional design syllabus pertinent to the whole learning process. I was a corporate trainer for 25 years teaching adult learners the basic skills needed to execute the functionality of their occupation. Just think if I had known about this knowledge and how to appropriately apply each of the learning theories to my syllabus, my teaching styles’ would have been  tweak to specific skills germane to not only the functionality of the learners’ occupation, but also in increasing those skills to meet the optimum knowledge level for future business advancement.

 How has this course deepened your understanding of your personal learning process?

This course, Learning Theories and Instruction, has increased the compass of my learning in voluminous ways, for case in point, I absorbed that it is central to make the most of the segment of learning theory apropos to the book learning student’s needs; that the student learning is centered on these theories: Behaviorism, cognitivism, social learning theory, adult learning, and constructivism. Appreciating the scale of these theories has ameliorated me to structure improved teaching syllabus with key influences than before, as well as increasing my personal learning progression. They are as follows:

Constructivism – This theory materialized throughout the 1980s and has been implemented into voluminous educational cultures today, and has connected breaches in education for teachers and students. The focal range of this theory, as it is pragmatic to individual learning, are, for illustration, social negotiation, juxtaposition of instructional content, nurturance of reflexivity and student-centered instruction. This theory also has stirred me as an educator to scrutinize each learning theory and apply its relevance to education based on the specific learning requirements. It has not only exposed me to map and create learning aids, but also how significance collaboration is between me and my students as well as them studying the material. Constructivism presented me an outlook to rethink how my students learn and concentration on the developments of diverse ways to learn, e.g., distance learning, web 2.0, communities, conversation, interaction with others, email, blog, internet, MWDs, MUVE, World to desktop, gaming, PDAs, iPod, podcasts, collaborative writing, voice thread, etc., these learning initiations are provided by illustrious theorist, such as (Dede, C. Siemens, 2005). In the Constructivism Theory, J. Bruner, 1966, states that “A theory of instruction should address four major teaching (1) predisposition towards learning, (2) the ways in which a body of knowledge can be structured so that it can be most readily understood by the learner, (3) the most effective sequences in which to present material, and (4) the nature and pacing of rewards and punishments.” All of these are founded on stimuli and responses. The key ideologies of Constructivism theory includes, but not limited to, instructions that must be concerned with the experiences and frameworks that make the students enthusiastic and capable to learn (readiness), instructions must be structured so that it can be clearly understood by the student (spiral organization), and instructions should be propositioned to simplify extrapolation and seal in the gaps (going beyond the information given) Bandura 1973.   According to Abdal-Haqq 1998 writing, I am prompted to look for ways to involve learners to foster valuable  lesson learned for exporting and to prepare my students to accept challenges that center on the definitive education result.

Cognitivism – epitomizes learning of such renowned theorist as, Thorndike, Piaget,  Bruner, Gagne’, Lewin, Kohler, Koffka, Ausubel, Ertmer/Newby), which has motivated me to write instructional design teaching syllabus based on the building chunks of knowledge and identifying precondition associations of content. To place prominence on configuring, consolidating and sequencing material to facilitate optimum dispensation for my students in learning.

Connectivism is compelled by the understanding that assessments are based on faster foundations of learning. New information is repetitively shifting and the ability to make dissimilarities between what is essential and insignificant information is dynamic. “The ability to recognize when new information alters the landscape of learning based on decisions made yesterday” (Siemens 2005). This theory is essential to me for the reason that as an instructional designer, I have got to be in a position to keep well-informed of all new emerging technologies that would support me in my improvement before developing others. The key modules of this theory is contributory to my  learning and knowledge base that speaks to the diversity of opinions, linking of specialized nodes or information resources, it is learning that not only in human devices, but also in non-human devices. Studying this theory has prepared me with the aptitude to know supplementary is supplementary perilous than what is currently known. I feel that the cultivation of these connections is needed to facilitate continual learning today and the facility to see connections between fields, designs, and theories is a core skill.  Today, I am ready to integrate these key elements of the connection theory into my teaching.

Behaviorism – A learning theory that goes back as far as Aristotle, “Memory” essay. This theory focused on what happens when a correct response is confirmed following the exhibition of a specific environmental stimulus.

Social Learning Theory – In this theory, I studied the significance of Bandura’s (1977) theory as it highlighted the consequence of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. I ascertained that the principle components of observational learning are attention, retention, motor reproduction and motivation. The key apparatuses of this theory are: learning is achieved through rehearsing behavior and individuals are likely to adopt the modeled behavior if it is similar to their behaviors. It is also a precarious factor in that we learn according to our environment. Since learning more about social learning theory, I have applied key concepts of this theory to my personal situation dealing with my grandchild to understand the aggression and psychological disorders, particularly, in the perspective of his behavior. According to Bandura, 1973 the most pervasive example of social learning situations are television commercials. Bandura suggests in commercials, drinking a certain beverage or using a particular hair shampoo will make us popular”. I took this theory a little further and applied it to cartoon characters. For illustration, physiognomies of some cartoons that demonstrate violence depictions on television have had a profound effect on my grandchild’s behavior. Watching such physiognomies in cartoons has caused him to act out according to how the cartoon characters acts. The results of imitating these characteristics are that he is no longer permitted to watch cartoons, which depicts violence. Consequently, his aggressive behavior had deceased.  You might be asking yourself why as am I using my grandchild as a model for this theory? It is a good question. After examining the social learning theory, I was able to not only recognize why certain behaviors were occurring, but also where they were occurring, and how to deal with the occurrence.

Adult learning – In this theory, I studied that Knowles conceived the vernacular Andragogy to indicate specific learning development for the adult learners. Knowles stressed that adults are self-directed learners and take responsibility for their learning decisions. As stated by Knowles there are basic assumptions about adults learning that are beneficial to us as instruction designers: (1) Adults need to know why they need to learn something, (2) Adults need to learn experientially, (3) Adults approach learning as problem-solving and (4) Adults learn best when the topic is of immediate value to them.

Throughout my occupation as a corporate trainer training adult learners, it was precarious for me to elucidate why specific skills were being imparted. Why instruction was planned around task oriented and  not memorization, why  learners needed to navigate through problems for themselves, and sanction, if appropriate, adult learners to take part in the planning and evaluation of their learning desires. Learning the key use of this theory has inspired me to write useful and specific syllabus assignments appropriate for the learners’, which I did not do previously. 

Coinciding with Simoneaux and Stroud (2010), there are fundamental age group in the place of work—Baby boomers, Gen Xers and Millennial. (See table below), Simoneaux and Stroud looked at how the different generations view mentoring. Millennial are the most active in seeking mentors, retirement boomers have knowledge to share with the younger generation ,but they can feel vulnerable in using technology to transfer that knowledge.

 GENERATIONAL ATTRIBUTES – Simoneaux and Stroud (2010)

Table Baby Boomers, born 1946-1964 (age now 46-64) Gen Xers, born 1965-1980(age now 30-45) Millennial, born 1981-2000 (now age 10-29)
Generalization Majority of the current workforce Change the world, question authority, value involvement, optimism, personal gratification, work Smallest group of current workforce Be careful out there

Distrust or ignore authority, value diversity, skepticism, pragmatism, informality

Entering workforce-largest group by 2016, protect environment, respect authority and expect it returned, value optimism, global awareness, sociability, volunteering
Education See education as the way to get ahead in life, prefer traditional classroom style learning See education as a means to an end, personal growth, prefer self-directed learning through technology See education as a huge expense, believe in lifelong learning, prefer options; classroom, group activities, technology use, fun
Workplace Work to live, classified as workaholic, work provides personal fulfillment, fax, and express mail. 

Positives: team player, driven, service oriented.


Negatives: process before results, judgmental of those with other viewpoints.

Work/life balance, efficient, action oriented, email. 

Positives: independent, techno literate, creative, adaptable.


Negatives: Impatient, cynical, poor people skills.

Work/life balance, multitasks, looking for what is next, email, text instant messaging, state-of-the-art technology. 

Positives: collaboration, tech savvy, multitasks.


Negatives: need supervision and structure, inexperienced.

Feedback Give feedback by giving money, title, recognition Like to know status, reward with freedom Need continuous feedback and meaningful work.
Communication Considered politically correct and love meetings Informal, abrupt, prefer structured meetings that are grief and to the point. Eager to please, inclusive prefer meetings that are conversational and interactive.
Technology Learned technology at work, believe it improves personal productivity. Learned technology in school, believe it is critical for personal and work efficiency and best way to connect. Lifetime exposure to technology, believe it is core to life and work and way of thinking.

 Multiple Intelligences– I  studied how Gardner wanted to widen the possibility of human potential beyond the restrictions of the IQ score. Gardner (1983) examined the validity of regulating intelligence through the practice of taking individuals out of their natural learning environment and asking them to do isolated tasks they have never done before. With this outcomes, Gardner suggested that intelligence has more to do with capacity for solving problems and fitting products in a context-rich and naturalistic setting. Gardner used nine MI theory for charting behavior; I will only use six for my  instructional design syllabus.

 This is an illustration of MI Theory Summary Chart. I will use this  matrix to create learning syllabus that will have a lasting effects on my students:


Intelligence Core Components Symbol systems High End-states Neurological Systems Developmental  Factors
Linguistic Sensitivity to the sounds, structure, meanings, and functions of words and language Phonetic languages (e.g.,, English) Writer, orator (e.g., Gone with the Wind, Roots) Left temporal and frontal lobes (e.g., Broca’s/Wemicke’s areas) Explodes in early childhood; remains robust until old age.
Logical-Mathematical Sensitivity to and capacity to discern, logical or numerical patterns; ability to handle long chains of reasoning Computer languages (e.g., Basic, Fortran, C+) Scientist, mathematician (e.g., Madame Curie, Blasé Pascal) Left frontal and right parietal lobes Peaks in adolescence and early adulthood, higher math insights decline after age 40. 


Spatial Capacity to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately and to perform transformations on one’s initial perceptions. Ideographic languages (e.g., Chinese, French, Spanish) Artist, architect (e.g., Frida Kahlo, I.M. Pei) Posterior regions of right hemisphere  Topological thinking in early childhood gives way to Euclidean paradigm around age 9-10; artistic eye stays robust into old age. 
Bodily-Kinesthetic Ability to control one’s body movements and to handle objects skillfully Sign language, Braille Athlete, dancer, sculptor (e.g., Martha Graham, Michael Jordan) Cerebellum, basal ganglia, motor cortex Varies depending upon component (strength, flexibility) or domain (gymnastics, baseball, mime)
Interpersonal Capacity to discern and respond appropriately to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and desires of other people. Social cues (e.g., gestures and facial expressions) Counselor, political leader ()e.g., Nelson Mandela, Barak Obama, Hillary Clinton) Frontal lobes, temporal lobe (especially right hemisphere) limbic system. Political documents, social institutions. 
Naturalist Expertise in distinguishing among members of a species; recognizing the existence of other neighboring species; and charting out the relations, formally or informally, among several species. Species classification systems (e.g., Linnaeus), habitat maps. Naturalist, biologist, animal activist (e.g., Charles Darwin) Areas of left parietal lobe important for discriminating “living” from “nonliving” things. Shows up dramatically in some young children; schooling or experience increases formal or informal expertise.

 What have you learned regarding the connection between learning theories, learning styles, educational technology and motivation?

I have learned that the connection between learning theories, learning styles, educational technology and motivation are: Learning theories are theories that aid teachers and students to understand how they learn and the specific learning skills needed to learn.  Conferring to Miller (1956) information processing theory, the first concept is “chunking” and the capacity of short term memory. Miller presented the idea that short-term memory could only hold 5-9 chunks of knowledge at any given time (7+ or – 2, which make it vital to select pieces of information at a time to develop learning skills. It is significant for teachers not to overload students with too much information in too short of time.

Learning styles are skills that allows for distinctive ways to learn and process information. For instance, according to Dr. Jeanne Ormrod, “People tend to be more verbally oriented; remember more of what they hear, and some people tend to be more visual learners; remembering more of what they see.” Imparting  my understanding of learning styles, it is the technique of how a person thinks, remembers or solves problems. Additionally, styles are bipolar magnitudes that can range from zero to a maximum value for learning. Styles as it relates to cognitive learning are a personality trait, which influences attitudes, values, and social interaction. Genge (1984, 1985) identified five types of learning for instruction: (1) intellectual skills, (2) verbal information, (3) cognitive strategies,(4)  motor skills and (5) attitudes. Supportive to cognitive theories of learning, computer technologies are cognitive mind tools heighten by human learning abilities such as memory and processing of information, rather than instructional means. Computers only perform ersatz tasks based upon the instruction of the software that allows the learner to center on core concepts of ‘reliable’ learning.  One more noted theorist, Jonassen 1994, argues that children cannot use computers without thinking deeply about the content that they are learning; the cognitive tools activate thinking and learning takes place through the process of using the tool.

The motivation connection to learning styles can be linked meticulously to arousal, attention, anxiety, feedback and reinforcement. A person must be motived in order to learn from any learning environment. Weiner (1990) points to the behavioral theories in that this theory tended to focus on extrinsic motivation (i.e., rewards) while cognitive theories deal with intrinsic motivation (i.e., goals). Conversely, in most forms of behavioral theories, Hull points to motivation as strictly a function of drives such as hunger, sex, sleep, or comfort. Conferring to Hull’s drive reduction theory, learning reduces drives and therefore motivation is essential to learning. Additionally, in the cognitive theory, it is said that motivation serves to create intentions and goal-seeking acts (Ames and Ames, 1989). Motivation is also linked to one’s achievement desires.   According to (Atkinson and Raynor, 1974; Weiner, 1990), motivation to achieve is a function of the individual’s desire for success, the expectancy of success, and the incentives provided. Self-actualization is another drive that motivates learning according to Rogers (1969).

Malone (1981) presented a framework for intrinsic motivation in the context of designing computer games for instruction. Malone argues that intrinsic motivation is created by three qualities: challenge, fantasy and curiosity. Malone declares too that individual challenge depends upon activities that involve uncertain outcomes due to variable levels, hidden information or randomness. He affirms as well that fantasy depends upon skills required for the instruction and curiosity can be aroused when learners believe their knowledge structures are incomplete, inconsistent, or unparsimonious. Malone total vestige of motivational learning is challenge, concrete feedback, and clear-cut criteria for performance.

 Using the Keller’s ARCS motivational design model provides a systematic approach for me to use in instructional designing. These models are (A) attention, ® Relevance (C) Confidence and (S) Satisfaction. According to several  theorist such as Means, Jonassen, and Dwyer, 1997; Small and Gluck, 1994; and Visser and Keller, 1990) all have found the ARCS model to be valid practice tool. 

 May’s Keller’s ARCS model for motivating learning.

Design factorsFor students Attention Relevance Confidence Satisfaction
Learners characteristics New Students: Make course learning attractive and interesting by stating the purpose and/or objectives for the course. Let students know that you are here for them and are will to assist in their learning endeavor. Reinforce the reason students’ choice to learning, i.e., career advancement, promise to parent or self. Reiterate students’ values for taking course. Build confidence by reiterating students’ values. Point out specific achievement that students’ have made in their studies and let them knows that their hard work and dedication will pay off. Applaud them for their goals accomplishments.
Student Midterm attitudes For students functioning below the norm, let them know that there is still time for improvement. Encourage them to g study. Point out that this level of evaluation is for them to know their progression level at this point. Continue encouragement. Provide positive reinforcement. Gathered feedback from students of their direction from this point. Focus on the milestone made in their learning choices and achievements at this point.  





Students’ Reaction to courseware High. Continue the momentum Point out relevance for taking the course. Continue building confidence level. Goal achievements, light at end of tunnel.
Motivational tactic for the lesson Stress that skills are marketable around the world. Relevance in goals and learning accomplishments are transferrable in any job markets.  Continue to focus on achievement, encouragement and feedback. Stress high achievements that have been meet, feeling of self-worth because the students pressed for their mark.

How will your learning in this course help you as you further your career in the field of instructional design?

The learning knowledge that I have acquired in this class has helped me in developing syllabus that speaks to all of the learning theories and to apply specific pieces of each theory to my learning practice.  


Learning is power and the key to reach future accomplishments. Without the appropriate learning styles and strategies, plus the theories student  learning is of no effect. Yes, we still have ways to go before we finish the goals of no child left behind. We as instructional designers, educators, school administrators, etc., must do our part to make indisputable strive for our students who come to the classroom one way and walk out a different way knowing that they can triumph over challenges. No matter how small or large. They must be well prepared, and we must do the preparing.  


Abdal-Haqq, I. (1998). “Constructivism in Teacher Education: Considerations for those who would link Practice to Theory. ERIC Digest, Eric Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education. .

Ames, C. a. (1989). Research in Motivation in Education, Vol. 3. San Diego: Academic Press.

Atkinson, J. a. (1974). Motivation and Achievement. Washington: Winston.

Ausubel, D. (1963). The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning. New York: Grune and Stratton.

Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Press.

Bruner, J. (1966). Toward a Theory of Instruction. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press.

Bruner, J. S. (1960). The Process of Education. Cambridge MA.: Harvard University Press.

Dede, C. (2005). Planning for Neomillennial Learning Styles: Implications for Investments in Technology and Faculty. In D. G. Oblinger & J. L. Oblinger (Eds.), . Educating the Net Generation, Retrieved from

Ertmer, P. A. (n.d.). Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing Critical Features from an Instructional Design Perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), pp. 50-72.

Gagne, R. M. (1985, (4th ed)). The Conditions of Learning . New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Hull, C. L. (1927). Cognitive Behavior: An Introduction to Behavior Theory. New York: Appleton-Century, Crofts.

Knowles, M. (1984). Andragogy in Action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Koffka, K. (1924). The Growth of the Mind. (R. M. Ogden, Trans). London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner.

Kohler, W. (1947). Gestalt psychology: An Introduction to New Concepts in Modern Psychology. New York: Liver Right. (Reprinted 1959, New American Library, New York. .

Lewin, K. (1935). A Dynamic Theroy of Personality. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Malone, T. (1981). Towards a Theory of Instrinsically Motivating Instruction. Cognitive Science, 4, pp. 333-369.

Means, T. B. (1997). “Enhancing Relevance: Embedded ARCS Strategies Versus Purpose”. Educational Technology Research and Development, Vol. 45(1), pp. 5-18.

Miller, G. A. (1956). The Magical Number Seven, plus or minus two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information.  Psychological Review, 63, 81-97. [Available at http://www.musanim. com/miller1956].

Rogers, C. R. (Orginal printed 1969, 1994, (3rd ed)). Freedom to Learn. New York: MacMillian.

Siemens, G. (2005). Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age. Internaltional Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 2(1).

Simoneaux, S. and Stroud, C. (2010). Bridging the Generation Gaps in the Retirement Services Workplace. Journal of Pension Benefits:Issues in Administration., 17(2), pp. 66-75.

Small, R. V. (1994). “The Relationaship of Motivational Conditions to Effective Instructional Attributes: A Magnitude Scaling Approach”. Education Technology, Vol. 34(8), pp. 33-40.

Thorndike, E. (1922). The Psychology of Arithmetic. New York: MacMillan.

Visser, J. a. (1990). “The Clinical Use of Motivational Messages: An Inquiry into the Validity of the ARCS Model of Motivational Design”. Instructional Science, 19, pp. 467-500.

Weiner, B. (1990.). History of Motivational Research in Education. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), pp. 616-622.


Fitting the Pieces Together

Now that you have a deeper understanding of the different learning theories and learning styles, how has your view on how you learn changed? My learning view has changed tremendously; I am now able to pull resources of skills from all of the theories and apply each to my learning needs. Before taken this course, ‘Learning Theories and Instruction’, I was not aware of my learning strategies or how the different learning strategies could help me to develop skills in ways that would not only be beneficial to my career, but also to the facilitation of learning skills germane to the student’s needs as well.

What have you learned about the various learning theories and learning styles over the past weeks that can further explain your own personal learning preferences?As an adult learner and educator in the digital age, my learning preference is the “Connectivism Learning Theory”. This learning theory is diverse in its network, its strength are tied to the context of occurrence and its various communities. Its delivery is balance among experiential learning with guided mentoring and collective reflection for all learners. According to Siemens and Downes 2005, this theory expression through nonlinear association webs of representations. Co-design of learning experiences personalized to individual needs and preferences.” This theory too, I believe, is the way to learning for the next generation because of its technical suaveness and constant evolving for better understanding and users friendly.

I have acquired wealth of knowledge from all other theories such as these:

The Cognitive/Learning Styles—refers to the ways in which individual process information. According to Gardner, Guilford, Sternberg individual differences in abilities, which describe peak performance. Styles describe a person’s typical mode of thinking, remembering or problem solving.” Styles are also categorized into two dimensions–bipolar (a person’s styles) and unipolar (a person’s abilities).Another fact about the cognitive learning theory that I do like is its emphasis is on the building blocks of knowledge (e.g. identifying prerequisite relationships of content), and emphasis on structuring, organizing and sequencing information to facilitate optimal processing. (Piaget, Bruner, Gagne’, Lewin, Kohler, Koffka, Ausubel, Ertmer/Newby).

The Behaviorism Learning Styles – This theory because of the S-R framework of behavioral. That learning is the results between stimuli and responses. That our learning strengthened or weakened by nature is via the S-R parings. There are three primary laws proposed by Thorndike’s theory, which of (1) Law of Effect, (2) Law of readiness and (3). Law of exercise, these laws plays an intricate part to the learned behavior.

Constructivist Theory/Learning Styles – is learning that is actively processing learning in ways in which learners construct new ideas or learning patterns based upon their current or past knowledge. According to J. Burner, The learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so. Cognitive structure is, for example, schema and mental models, which provides meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to go beyond the information given.”

 Adult Learning/Styles—another word for adult learning is Andragogy. It is an attempt to develop specific learning theory for the adult learners. According to Knowles, adults are self-directed and expect to take responsibility for their decisions. That adults need to know why they need to learn something (2) adults need to learn experientially, (3) adults approach learning as problem-soling and (4) adults learn best when the topic is of immediate value.

Social Learning theory/Learning Styles— Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if it results in outcomes they value. Observational learning is also known as imitation or modeling. Observation Learning: learn by observing others. The base for this theory is that the individual’s environment depicts how they learn.

What role does technology play in your learning (i.e., as a way to search for information, to record information, to create, etc.)? Technology plays a very important role in how I search for information via the web, different search engine. I particularly prefer to search for information through these sites:, and These are very thorough in locating specific information. I also found a site that is good to use if you are creating professional slide presentations and videos, these are: for videos and or for slide presentations. (Johnson, Levine & Smith 2009)


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