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Defining Distance Learning

Distance Learning

 

What is distance learning?

     Referring to (Simonson, Smaldino, Albright, & Zvacek, 2009), distance learning is “Institution-based and formal education where the learning group is separated, and where interactive telecommunication systems are used to connect learners, resources, and instructors.” Those are the four main component of the definition of distance learning. Moreover, Coldeway of South Dakota’s Dakota State University provides four practical approaches to the definition of distance learning. For example, Coldeway states that there is a “Combination of time and place results in the four approaches to education:

  • Same-time, same-place education (ST-SP), means learning takes place at the same time and in the same place, which is a self-contained classroom that is teacher-centered.

  • Different-time, same-place education (DT-SP), means learning takes place at different time and in the same place allowing individual learning to occur in a learning center, or that multiple sections of the same classes are offer so students can attend the class in the same place at a time they choose.

  • Same time, different place education (ST-DP), means that learning takes place at same time, but in different places.

  • Different time, different place education (DT-DP) when communications systems are used.”

     The first two types of education are synchronous and the latter two are asynchronous learning.

     Further, explanation of distance learning Rudolf Manfred Delling (1985) stated that distance education, in general, is a planned and systematic activity that comprises the choice, didactic preparation, and presentation of teaching material as well as the supervision and support of student learning” (Simonson et al., 2009). Finally, the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Educational; research and Improvement defines distance education as “the application of telecommunications and electronic devices which enable students an learners to receive instruction that originates from some distance location (Simonson et al., 2009).

Personal Definition and Observation of Distance learning:

     Before this course, my definition and learning was very limited. My prior learning experience as it pertains to distance learning was analyzing, designing, and developing course curriculum for the company’s internal communication platform—the Intranet. My limited responsibility was to create and upload the learning instruction onto the platform. My personal definition as I know it today is Distance learning provides access to students/learners across the globe. Where the instructional designer are afford the opportunity to create meaningful learning sequences that incorporate learners from different places and times, as well as same time and places.

     During this course, my personal definition has evolved. It means that distance learning provide the foundation for the instructional design to build learning sequences to achieve positive outcomes including, but not limited to, time involve in the reinforcement of the instruction. As I further contextualizes, distance-learning start by examining the performance problem and designing the most appropriate means of which the learning should take place. As well, the instructional designer considers the learners needs above the content; and therefore, provide learner-centered learning instruction.

     Moreover, there is a continue emerging of the distance learning definition as well. Referring to Edwards (1995) open learning is “A way in which using mass produced courseware to a mass market…Open learning places greater emphasis on the current specific needs and/or market available by recognizing local requirements and different instead of delivering an established curriculum.” Recently, virtual school has emerged as the expansion of technology continues to develop. Virtual, according to (Simonson et al., 2009) is defined as something quasi or pseudo—distance education is about as real as actual as education can be.”

 Summary:

     As an instructional design student, I envision the continued growth and progression of distance education. In the future, classroom instruction as we know it today might be a thing of a distance past as more and more technologies for distance learning continue to improve. I believe that the next generation of learners will predict how their learning will take place. I see a Facebook type of parallel technology in view for the next generation of learners, as well as iPhones, Tablets, Notepads, or something new altogether. I see professors, teachers, and trainer growing more and more into multiple roles of teaching at a distance because the future is moving rapidly into new technological frontier.

     Universities that are more open are going to spring into existence, perhaps as we sleep. Referring to Holmberg (1986) states, “The Open University brought heightened prestige to distance education and spurred the establishment of similar institutions in industrial nations such as West Germany, Japan, and Canada as well as less-developed nation as Sri Lanka and Pakistan.”

     Who has to say that these trends will not gain more advantage, power, and strength to influence the way we learn at a distance today?

 

 References:

Coldeway, D. (2009). Distance education. In Simonson et al, Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance eduation. (4th Ed.), (pp. 10-11). Boston, MA: Pearson.

 Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., Zvacek, S. (2011). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education. (4th Ed.). Boston: MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

 

Mind Mapping of Future Distance Learning

 

In view of the fact that studying the course on Multimedia Design and Development as an Instructional Design and Technology student, I learned that Multimedia design can be an effective learning experience for new beginners. The word “multimedia” was a confusing terminology to me because I thought that multimedia only depicted graphical illustration on TVs, magazines and books. In this course, I realized that media is intermediate between tenues and the aspirates—a voiced stop, and the word multi encompasses many communication outlets (Merriam –Webster), which is a pleonasm. Therefore, when putting both words together, a whole new world of sound, video, animation, film, music, text, narration, graphic, etc., unlocks our imagination. Multimedia personifies the consolidation of information.

The interworking of multimedia and the Internet are two powerful tools that link communication together throughout the entire world. As a student of instructional design and technology, I learned that multimedia requires different ways to approach writing. The text and type of writing that is applicable for multimedia are abundantly devised and designed to be appreciated by all audiences.  For example, Dr. Amy Pointer (2011) Effective use of Text, proposed that text payoffs are legibility, readability, clear communication, audience attention and higher return. When creating multimedia for instructional purposes the most important scaffold to consider is text. According to Dr. Amy Pointer (2011), text should be creative, engaging, and visually stimulating because text and type matters.

Equally, Dr. Richard Mayer’s Ten Principles of Multimedia personifies multimedia learning and design. Many of Dr. Mayer’s principles are dependable with decreasing extraneous cognitive load, such as excluding extraneous and redundant material. Presenting words and pictures near each other and in close temporal contiguity also decreases extraneous load because it increases the opportunity to have both verbal and graphic together in working memory. The advantage of narration over written text, according to Dr. Mayer, is that narration and pictures occupy separate “channels”. Written text, like pictures, at the start resides in the visual channel and then is converted back to speech to create a verbal representation (Mayer 2011). These interpretations have much intensity. Dr. Mayer also presents functional applications of his model, as characterized by the ten principles of multimedia design. (See Table 1, Table 2, and Table 3)

 Table 1

Three Principles for managing Essential Processes

 

Segmenting Principle: People learn better when a narrated animation is presented in learner-paced segments rather than as a continuous presentation. Pre-training Principle: People learn better from a narrated animation when they already know the names and characteristics of essential components. Modality Principle: People learn better from graphics with spoken text rather than graphics with printed text.

 

Table 2

Two Principles for Fostering Generative Processing

 

Multimedia Principle: People learn better from words and pictures than from words alone. This allows people to build connections between their verbal and pictorial models. Personalization Principle: People learn better from a multimedia lesson when words are in conversational style rather than formal style. If people feel as though they are engaged in a conversation, they will make more effort to understand what the other person is saying.

 

Table 3

Five Principles for reducing extraneous processes

 

Coherence Principle: (less is more).People learns better when extraneous material is excluded from multimedia learning. Dr. Meyer believes that less is more, which means that students learn better when extraneous words, pictures and sounds are excluded rather than included. Redundancy Principle: People learn better from animation with narration than from animation with narration and text except when the onscreen text is short, highlights the key action described in the narration, and is placed next to the portion of the graphic that it describes. Spatial Contiguity Principle: People learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented near rather than far from each other on the page or screen. Temporal Contiguity Principle: (best use of sequencing of words and pictures). People learn better when corresponding narration and animation are presented simultaneously rather than successively (i.e. the words are spoken at the same time they are illustrated in the animation—hear with your ears, see with your eyes). Modality Principle: (best use of visual and auditory channels). Dr. Mayer states that students learn better from animation and narration, than from animation and on-screen text. Using graphics with audio improves learning. Redundancy Principle: (best use of text and audio). Dr. Meyer states that graphics with audio and redundant text can hurt a creative project. As instructional designer, we must avoid reading on-screen text because student learn better from animation and narration, than animation, narration and on-screen text.

 

The impending learning of multimedia is far-reaching and will continue to advance, as it does, multimedia education will reach the crowning point of its perfection and expand the scope from where it is today to a more comprehendible level in the future. As an instructional design student, I plan continue my education in this field and absorb all that is possible to absorb about multimedia design and more.

Challenged assessment of Dr. Mayer’s principles

Some critique has been in contradiction of the Cognitive Theory Multimedia Learning (CTML) and the ten principles of Dr. Mayer. For example, Astleitner and Wiesner (2004) stated that the model does not take motivational elements into consideration. They believe that motivation can impact learning and consume memory resources and thereby affecting cognitive load. [[1]]

Likewise, Reed mentions a concern about the lack of explanation for the integration process in the Cognitive Theory Multimedia Learning. Reed asked, “How are the verbal and visual representations combined with prior knowledge in the working memory?” And, “Are the two representations merged to either verbal or visual, or does it take some other abstract form?” [[2]]

Conversely, Gall (2004) feels that Mayer’s research does not consider video and non-narrative audio. He believes that Mayer research is centered on learning about physical and mechanical systems. Gall further believes that a question regarding the applicability of Mayer’s results to other situations arises from these constraints. [[3]]      

 

References

Mayer, R. (2001). Multimedia Learning. . International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. Retrieved from http://www.irod.org.

Merriam. (1973). New Collegiate Dictionary. Springfield, Massachusetts. USA: G. and C. Merriam Company.

Pointer, A. (2011). Effective use of Text: Media Presentation. http://sylvan.live.ecollege.com/ec/crs/default.learn?CourseID=5364566&Survey=1&47=8115912&ClientNodeID=984650&coursenav=1&bhcp=1.


[1]. Astleitner, H. & Wiesner, C. (2004). An Integrated Model of Multimedia Learning and Motivation found in Journal of educational Multimedia Hypermedia. Volume 13, pp. 3-21. Retrieved from http://www.sites.wiki.ubc.ca/etec51/Cognitive_theory_of_Multimedia_Learning#cite_note_13

[2]. Gall, J. E. (2004). [Review of the book Multimedia Learning, by R. E. Mayer] found in Educational Technology research and Development. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi+10.1.1.88.6569&rank=,Volume 52(3), pp.87-90.

[3]. Reed, S. (206). Cognitive Architectures for Multimedia Learning found in Educational Psychologist. Volume 41(2), pp. 87-98. Retrieved from http://citeseerxc.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.88.6569&rank=

 What did you find surprising or striking as you furthered your knowledge about how people learn?

The unanticipated thing that I found the most about this class was the delusion that I had going into the class. My understanding at first was that learning theories and instruction was about common learning. However, much to my amazement, this class delivered a comprehensive collection of knowledge that dealt with each specific skills and how each of these theories are used to regulate the best approach for developing instructional design syllabus pertinent to the whole learning process. I was a corporate trainer for 25 years teaching adult learners the basic skills needed to execute the functionality of their occupation. Just think if I had known about this knowledge and how to appropriately apply each of the learning theories to my syllabus, my teaching styles’ would have been  tweak to specific skills germane to not only the functionality of the learners’ occupation, but also in increasing those skills to meet the optimum knowledge level for future business advancement.

 How has this course deepened your understanding of your personal learning process?

This course, Learning Theories and Instruction, has increased the compass of my learning in voluminous ways, for case in point, I absorbed that it is central to make the most of the segment of learning theory apropos to the book learning student’s needs; that the student learning is centered on these theories: Behaviorism, cognitivism, social learning theory, adult learning, and constructivism. Appreciating the scale of these theories has ameliorated me to structure improved teaching syllabus with key influences than before, as well as increasing my personal learning progression. They are as follows:

Constructivism – This theory materialized throughout the 1980s and has been implemented into voluminous educational cultures today, and has connected breaches in education for teachers and students. The focal range of this theory, as it is pragmatic to individual learning, are, for illustration, social negotiation, juxtaposition of instructional content, nurturance of reflexivity and student-centered instruction. This theory also has stirred me as an educator to scrutinize each learning theory and apply its relevance to education based on the specific learning requirements. It has not only exposed me to map and create learning aids, but also how significance collaboration is between me and my students as well as them studying the material. Constructivism presented me an outlook to rethink how my students learn and concentration on the developments of diverse ways to learn, e.g., distance learning, web 2.0, communities, conversation, interaction with others, email, blog, internet, MWDs, MUVE, World to desktop, gaming, PDAs, iPod, podcasts, collaborative writing, voice thread, etc., these learning initiations are provided by illustrious theorist, such as (Dede, C. Siemens, 2005). In the Constructivism Theory, J. Bruner, 1966, states that “A theory of instruction should address four major teaching (1) predisposition towards learning, (2) the ways in which a body of knowledge can be structured so that it can be most readily understood by the learner, (3) the most effective sequences in which to present material, and (4) the nature and pacing of rewards and punishments.” All of these are founded on stimuli and responses. The key ideologies of Constructivism theory includes, but not limited to, instructions that must be concerned with the experiences and frameworks that make the students enthusiastic and capable to learn (readiness), instructions must be structured so that it can be clearly understood by the student (spiral organization), and instructions should be propositioned to simplify extrapolation and seal in the gaps (going beyond the information given) Bandura 1973.   According to Abdal-Haqq 1998 writing, I am prompted to look for ways to involve learners to foster valuable  lesson learned for exporting and to prepare my students to accept challenges that center on the definitive education result.

Cognitivism – epitomizes learning of such renowned theorist as, Thorndike, Piaget,  Bruner, Gagne’, Lewin, Kohler, Koffka, Ausubel, Ertmer/Newby), which has motivated me to write instructional design teaching syllabus based on the building chunks of knowledge and identifying precondition associations of content. To place prominence on configuring, consolidating and sequencing material to facilitate optimum dispensation for my students in learning.

Connectivism is compelled by the understanding that assessments are based on faster foundations of learning. New information is repetitively shifting and the ability to make dissimilarities between what is essential and insignificant information is dynamic. “The ability to recognize when new information alters the landscape of learning based on decisions made yesterday” (Siemens 2005). This theory is essential to me for the reason that as an instructional designer, I have got to be in a position to keep well-informed of all new emerging technologies that would support me in my improvement before developing others. The key modules of this theory is contributory to my  learning and knowledge base that speaks to the diversity of opinions, linking of specialized nodes or information resources, it is learning that not only in human devices, but also in non-human devices. Studying this theory has prepared me with the aptitude to know supplementary is supplementary perilous than what is currently known. I feel that the cultivation of these connections is needed to facilitate continual learning today and the facility to see connections between fields, designs, and theories is a core skill.  Today, I am ready to integrate these key elements of the connection theory into my teaching.

Behaviorism – A learning theory that goes back as far as Aristotle, “Memory” essay. This theory focused on what happens when a correct response is confirmed following the exhibition of a specific environmental stimulus.

Social Learning Theory – In this theory, I studied the significance of Bandura’s (1977) theory as it highlighted the consequence of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. I ascertained that the principle components of observational learning are attention, retention, motor reproduction and motivation. The key apparatuses of this theory are: learning is achieved through rehearsing behavior and individuals are likely to adopt the modeled behavior if it is similar to their behaviors. It is also a precarious factor in that we learn according to our environment. Since learning more about social learning theory, I have applied key concepts of this theory to my personal situation dealing with my grandchild to understand the aggression and psychological disorders, particularly, in the perspective of his behavior. According to Bandura, 1973 the most pervasive example of social learning situations are television commercials. Bandura suggests in commercials, drinking a certain beverage or using a particular hair shampoo will make us popular”. I took this theory a little further and applied it to cartoon characters. For illustration, physiognomies of some cartoons that demonstrate violence depictions on television have had a profound effect on my grandchild’s behavior. Watching such physiognomies in cartoons has caused him to act out according to how the cartoon characters acts. The results of imitating these characteristics are that he is no longer permitted to watch cartoons, which depicts violence. Consequently, his aggressive behavior had deceased.  You might be asking yourself why as am I using my grandchild as a model for this theory? It is a good question. After examining the social learning theory, I was able to not only recognize why certain behaviors were occurring, but also where they were occurring, and how to deal with the occurrence.

Adult learning – In this theory, I studied that Knowles conceived the vernacular Andragogy to indicate specific learning development for the adult learners. Knowles stressed that adults are self-directed learners and take responsibility for their learning decisions. As stated by Knowles there are basic assumptions about adults learning that are beneficial to us as instruction designers: (1) Adults need to know why they need to learn something, (2) Adults need to learn experientially, (3) Adults approach learning as problem-solving and (4) Adults learn best when the topic is of immediate value to them.

Throughout my occupation as a corporate trainer training adult learners, it was precarious for me to elucidate why specific skills were being imparted. Why instruction was planned around task oriented and  not memorization, why  learners needed to navigate through problems for themselves, and sanction, if appropriate, adult learners to take part in the planning and evaluation of their learning desires. Learning the key use of this theory has inspired me to write useful and specific syllabus assignments appropriate for the learners’, which I did not do previously. 

Coinciding with Simoneaux and Stroud (2010), there are fundamental age group in the place of work—Baby boomers, Gen Xers and Millennial. (See table below), Simoneaux and Stroud looked at how the different generations view mentoring. Millennial are the most active in seeking mentors, retirement boomers have knowledge to share with the younger generation ,but they can feel vulnerable in using technology to transfer that knowledge.

 GENERATIONAL ATTRIBUTES – Simoneaux and Stroud (2010)

Table Baby Boomers, born 1946-1964 (age now 46-64) Gen Xers, born 1965-1980(age now 30-45) Millennial, born 1981-2000 (now age 10-29)
Generalization Majority of the current workforce Change the world, question authority, value involvement, optimism, personal gratification, work Smallest group of current workforce Be careful out there

Distrust or ignore authority, value diversity, skepticism, pragmatism, informality

Entering workforce-largest group by 2016, protect environment, respect authority and expect it returned, value optimism, global awareness, sociability, volunteering
Education See education as the way to get ahead in life, prefer traditional classroom style learning See education as a means to an end, personal growth, prefer self-directed learning through technology See education as a huge expense, believe in lifelong learning, prefer options; classroom, group activities, technology use, fun
Workplace Work to live, classified as workaholic, work provides personal fulfillment, fax, and express mail. 

Positives: team player, driven, service oriented.

 

Negatives: process before results, judgmental of those with other viewpoints.

Work/life balance, efficient, action oriented, email. 

Positives: independent, techno literate, creative, adaptable.

 

Negatives: Impatient, cynical, poor people skills.

Work/life balance, multitasks, looking for what is next, email, text instant messaging, state-of-the-art technology. 

Positives: collaboration, tech savvy, multitasks.

 

Negatives: need supervision and structure, inexperienced.

Feedback Give feedback by giving money, title, recognition Like to know status, reward with freedom Need continuous feedback and meaningful work.
Communication Considered politically correct and love meetings Informal, abrupt, prefer structured meetings that are grief and to the point. Eager to please, inclusive prefer meetings that are conversational and interactive.
Technology Learned technology at work, believe it improves personal productivity. Learned technology in school, believe it is critical for personal and work efficiency and best way to connect. Lifetime exposure to technology, believe it is core to life and work and way of thinking.

 Multiple Intelligences– I  studied how Gardner wanted to widen the possibility of human potential beyond the restrictions of the IQ score. Gardner (1983) examined the validity of regulating intelligence through the practice of taking individuals out of their natural learning environment and asking them to do isolated tasks they have never done before. With this outcomes, Gardner suggested that intelligence has more to do with capacity for solving problems and fitting products in a context-rich and naturalistic setting. Gardner used nine MI theory for charting behavior; I will only use six for my  instructional design syllabus.

 This is an illustration of MI Theory Summary Chart. I will use this  matrix to create learning syllabus that will have a lasting effects on my students:

 

Intelligence Core Components Symbol systems High End-states Neurological Systems Developmental  Factors
Linguistic Sensitivity to the sounds, structure, meanings, and functions of words and language Phonetic languages (e.g.,, English) Writer, orator (e.g., Gone with the Wind, Roots) Left temporal and frontal lobes (e.g., Broca’s/Wemicke’s areas) Explodes in early childhood; remains robust until old age.
Logical-Mathematical Sensitivity to and capacity to discern, logical or numerical patterns; ability to handle long chains of reasoning Computer languages (e.g., Basic, Fortran, C+) Scientist, mathematician (e.g., Madame Curie, Blasé Pascal) Left frontal and right parietal lobes Peaks in adolescence and early adulthood, higher math insights decline after age 40. 

 

Spatial Capacity to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately and to perform transformations on one’s initial perceptions. Ideographic languages (e.g., Chinese, French, Spanish) Artist, architect (e.g., Frida Kahlo, I.M. Pei) Posterior regions of right hemisphere  Topological thinking in early childhood gives way to Euclidean paradigm around age 9-10; artistic eye stays robust into old age. 
Bodily-Kinesthetic Ability to control one’s body movements and to handle objects skillfully Sign language, Braille Athlete, dancer, sculptor (e.g., Martha Graham, Michael Jordan) Cerebellum, basal ganglia, motor cortex Varies depending upon component (strength, flexibility) or domain (gymnastics, baseball, mime)
Interpersonal Capacity to discern and respond appropriately to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and desires of other people. Social cues (e.g., gestures and facial expressions) Counselor, political leader ()e.g., Nelson Mandela, Barak Obama, Hillary Clinton) Frontal lobes, temporal lobe (especially right hemisphere) limbic system. Political documents, social institutions. 
Naturalist Expertise in distinguishing among members of a species; recognizing the existence of other neighboring species; and charting out the relations, formally or informally, among several species. Species classification systems (e.g., Linnaeus), habitat maps. Naturalist, biologist, animal activist (e.g., Charles Darwin) Areas of left parietal lobe important for discriminating “living” from “nonliving” things. Shows up dramatically in some young children; schooling or experience increases formal or informal expertise.

 What have you learned regarding the connection between learning theories, learning styles, educational technology and motivation?

I have learned that the connection between learning theories, learning styles, educational technology and motivation are: Learning theories are theories that aid teachers and students to understand how they learn and the specific learning skills needed to learn.  Conferring to Miller (1956) information processing theory, the first concept is “chunking” and the capacity of short term memory. Miller presented the idea that short-term memory could only hold 5-9 chunks of knowledge at any given time (7+ or – 2, which make it vital to select pieces of information at a time to develop learning skills. It is significant for teachers not to overload students with too much information in too short of time.

Learning styles are skills that allows for distinctive ways to learn and process information. For instance, according to Dr. Jeanne Ormrod, “People tend to be more verbally oriented; remember more of what they hear, and some people tend to be more visual learners; remembering more of what they see.” Imparting  my understanding of learning styles, it is the technique of how a person thinks, remembers or solves problems. Additionally, styles are bipolar magnitudes that can range from zero to a maximum value for learning. Styles as it relates to cognitive learning are a personality trait, which influences attitudes, values, and social interaction. Genge (1984, 1985) identified five types of learning for instruction: (1) intellectual skills, (2) verbal information, (3) cognitive strategies,(4)  motor skills and (5) attitudes. Supportive to cognitive theories of learning, computer technologies are cognitive mind tools heighten by human learning abilities such as memory and processing of information, rather than instructional means. Computers only perform ersatz tasks based upon the instruction of the software that allows the learner to center on core concepts of ‘reliable’ learning.  One more noted theorist, Jonassen 1994, argues that children cannot use computers without thinking deeply about the content that they are learning; the cognitive tools activate thinking and learning takes place through the process of using the tool.

The motivation connection to learning styles can be linked meticulously to arousal, attention, anxiety, feedback and reinforcement. A person must be motived in order to learn from any learning environment. Weiner (1990) points to the behavioral theories in that this theory tended to focus on extrinsic motivation (i.e., rewards) while cognitive theories deal with intrinsic motivation (i.e., goals). Conversely, in most forms of behavioral theories, Hull points to motivation as strictly a function of drives such as hunger, sex, sleep, or comfort. Conferring to Hull’s drive reduction theory, learning reduces drives and therefore motivation is essential to learning. Additionally, in the cognitive theory, it is said that motivation serves to create intentions and goal-seeking acts (Ames and Ames, 1989). Motivation is also linked to one’s achievement desires.   According to (Atkinson and Raynor, 1974; Weiner, 1990), motivation to achieve is a function of the individual’s desire for success, the expectancy of success, and the incentives provided. Self-actualization is another drive that motivates learning according to Rogers (1969).

Malone (1981) presented a framework for intrinsic motivation in the context of designing computer games for instruction. Malone argues that intrinsic motivation is created by three qualities: challenge, fantasy and curiosity. Malone declares too that individual challenge depends upon activities that involve uncertain outcomes due to variable levels, hidden information or randomness. He affirms as well that fantasy depends upon skills required for the instruction and curiosity can be aroused when learners believe their knowledge structures are incomplete, inconsistent, or unparsimonious. Malone total vestige of motivational learning is challenge, concrete feedback, and clear-cut criteria for performance.

 Using the Keller’s ARCS motivational design model provides a systematic approach for me to use in instructional designing. These models are (A) attention, ® Relevance (C) Confidence and (S) Satisfaction. According to several  theorist such as Means, Jonassen, and Dwyer, 1997; Small and Gluck, 1994; and Visser and Keller, 1990) all have found the ARCS model to be valid practice tool. 

 May’s Keller’s ARCS model for motivating learning.

Design factorsFor students Attention Relevance Confidence Satisfaction
Learners characteristics New Students: Make course learning attractive and interesting by stating the purpose and/or objectives for the course. Let students know that you are here for them and are will to assist in their learning endeavor. Reinforce the reason students’ choice to learning, i.e., career advancement, promise to parent or self. Reiterate students’ values for taking course. Build confidence by reiterating students’ values. Point out specific achievement that students’ have made in their studies and let them knows that their hard work and dedication will pay off. Applaud them for their goals accomplishments.
Student Midterm attitudes For students functioning below the norm, let them know that there is still time for improvement. Encourage them to g study. Point out that this level of evaluation is for them to know their progression level at this point. Continue encouragement. Provide positive reinforcement. Gathered feedback from students of their direction from this point. Focus on the milestone made in their learning choices and achievements at this point.  

 

 

 

 

Students’ Reaction to courseware High. Continue the momentum Point out relevance for taking the course. Continue building confidence level. Goal achievements, light at end of tunnel.
Motivational tactic for the lesson Stress that skills are marketable around the world. Relevance in goals and learning accomplishments are transferrable in any job markets.  Continue to focus on achievement, encouragement and feedback. Stress high achievements that have been meet, feeling of self-worth because the students pressed for their mark.

How will your learning in this course help you as you further your career in the field of instructional design?

The learning knowledge that I have acquired in this class has helped me in developing syllabus that speaks to all of the learning theories and to apply specific pieces of each theory to my learning practice.  

Conclusion

Learning is power and the key to reach future accomplishments. Without the appropriate learning styles and strategies, plus the theories student  learning is of no effect. Yes, we still have ways to go before we finish the goals of no child left behind. We as instructional designers, educators, school administrators, etc., must do our part to make indisputable strive for our students who come to the classroom one way and walk out a different way knowing that they can triumph over challenges. No matter how small or large. They must be well prepared, and we must do the preparing.  

 References: 

Abdal-Haqq, I. (1998). “Constructivism in Teacher Education: Considerations for those who would link Practice to Theory. ERIC Digest, Eric Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education. .

Ames, C. a. (1989). Research in Motivation in Education, Vol. 3. San Diego: Academic Press.

Atkinson, J. a. (1974). Motivation and Achievement. Washington: Winston.

Ausubel, D. (1963). The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning. New York: Grune and Stratton.

Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Press.

Bruner, J. (1966). Toward a Theory of Instruction. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press.

Bruner, J. S. (1960). The Process of Education. Cambridge MA.: Harvard University Press.

Dede, C. (2005). Planning for Neomillennial Learning Styles: Implications for Investments in Technology and Faculty. In D. G. Oblinger & J. L. Oblinger (Eds.), . Educating the Net Generation, Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/content.asp?page_id=6069&bhcp=1.

Ertmer, P. A. (n.d.). Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing Critical Features from an Instructional Design Perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), pp. 50-72.

Gagne, R. M. (1985, (4th ed)). The Conditions of Learning . New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Hull, C. L. (1927). Cognitive Behavior: An Introduction to Behavior Theory. New York: Appleton-Century, Crofts.

Knowles, M. (1984). Andragogy in Action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Koffka, K. (1924). The Growth of the Mind. (R. M. Ogden, Trans). London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner.

Kohler, W. (1947). Gestalt psychology: An Introduction to New Concepts in Modern Psychology. New York: Liver Right. (Reprinted 1959, New American Library, New York. .

Lewin, K. (1935). A Dynamic Theroy of Personality. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Malone, T. (1981). Towards a Theory of Instrinsically Motivating Instruction. Cognitive Science, 4, pp. 333-369.

Means, T. B. (1997). “Enhancing Relevance: Embedded ARCS Strategies Versus Purpose”. Educational Technology Research and Development, Vol. 45(1), pp. 5-18.

Miller, G. A. (1956). The Magical Number Seven, plus or minus two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information.  Psychological Review, 63, 81-97. [Available at http://www.musanim. com/miller1956].

Rogers, C. R. (Orginal printed 1969, 1994, (3rd ed)). Freedom to Learn. New York: MacMillian.

Siemens, G. (2005). Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age. Internaltional Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 2(1).

Simoneaux, S. and Stroud, C. (2010). Bridging the Generation Gaps in the Retirement Services Workplace. Journal of Pension Benefits:Issues in Administration., 17(2), pp. 66-75.

Small, R. V. (1994). “The Relationaship of Motivational Conditions to Effective Instructional Attributes: A Magnitude Scaling Approach”. Education Technology, Vol. 34(8), pp. 33-40.

Thorndike, E. (1922). The Psychology of Arithmetic. New York: MacMillan.

Visser, J. a. (1990). “The Clinical Use of Motivational Messages: An Inquiry into the Validity of the ARCS Model of Motivational Design”. Instructional Science, 19, pp. 467-500.

Weiner, B. (1990.). History of Motivational Research in Education. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), pp. 616-622.

 

Fitting the Pieces Together

Now that you have a deeper understanding of the different learning theories and learning styles, how has your view on how you learn changed? My learning view has changed tremendously; I am now able to pull resources of skills from all of the theories and apply each to my learning needs. Before taken this course, ‘Learning Theories and Instruction’, I was not aware of my learning strategies or how the different learning strategies could help me to develop skills in ways that would not only be beneficial to my career, but also to the facilitation of learning skills germane to the student’s needs as well.

What have you learned about the various learning theories and learning styles over the past weeks that can further explain your own personal learning preferences?As an adult learner and educator in the digital age, my learning preference is the “Connectivism Learning Theory”. This learning theory is diverse in its network, its strength are tied to the context of occurrence and its various communities. Its delivery is balance among experiential learning with guided mentoring and collective reflection for all learners. According to Siemens and Downes 2005, this theory expression through nonlinear association webs of representations. Co-design of learning experiences personalized to individual needs and preferences.” This theory too, I believe, is the way to learning for the next generation because of its technical suaveness and constant evolving for better understanding and users friendly.

I have acquired wealth of knowledge from all other theories such as these:

The Cognitive/Learning Styles—refers to the ways in which individual process information. According to Gardner, Guilford, Sternberg individual differences in abilities, which describe peak performance. Styles describe a person’s typical mode of thinking, remembering or problem solving.” Styles are also categorized into two dimensions–bipolar (a person’s styles) and unipolar (a person’s abilities).Another fact about the cognitive learning theory that I do like is its emphasis is on the building blocks of knowledge (e.g. identifying prerequisite relationships of content), and emphasis on structuring, organizing and sequencing information to facilitate optimal processing. (Piaget, Bruner, Gagne’, Lewin, Kohler, Koffka, Ausubel, Ertmer/Newby).

The Behaviorism Learning Styles – This theory because of the S-R framework of behavioral. That learning is the results between stimuli and responses. That our learning strengthened or weakened by nature is via the S-R parings. There are three primary laws proposed by Thorndike’s theory, which of (1) Law of Effect, (2) Law of readiness and (3). Law of exercise, these laws plays an intricate part to the learned behavior.

Constructivist Theory/Learning Styles – is learning that is actively processing learning in ways in which learners construct new ideas or learning patterns based upon their current or past knowledge. According to J. Burner, The learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so. Cognitive structure is, for example, schema and mental models, which provides meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to go beyond the information given.”

 Adult Learning/Styles—another word for adult learning is Andragogy. It is an attempt to develop specific learning theory for the adult learners. According to Knowles, adults are self-directed and expect to take responsibility for their decisions. That adults need to know why they need to learn something (2) adults need to learn experientially, (3) adults approach learning as problem-soling and (4) adults learn best when the topic is of immediate value.

Social Learning theory/Learning Styles— Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if it results in outcomes they value. Observational learning is also known as imitation or modeling. Observation Learning: learn by observing others. The base for this theory is that the individual’s environment depicts how they learn.

What role does technology play in your learning (i.e., as a way to search for information, to record information, to create, etc.)? Technology plays a very important role in how I search for information via the web, different search engine. I particularly prefer to search for information through these sites: http://www.trueknowledge.com, http://www.hakia.com and http://www.semantifind.com. These are very thorough in locating specific information. I also found a site that is good to use if you are creating professional slide presentations and videos, these are: http://www.jaycut.com for videos and http://www.slideshare.net or http://www.sliderocket.com for slide presentations. (Johnson, Levine & Smith 2009)

References:

Ausubel, D. (1963). The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning. New York:: Grune and Stratton.
Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New Your: General Learning Press.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Throught and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs: Printice Hall, p. 23 (#1).
Bednar, A. K. (1991). Theory into Practice: How do we Link? In G. J. Anglin (ed.), Instructional Technology: Past, Present, and Future. Englewood, CO:: Libraries Unlimited. Bransford, J. D. (1971). The Abstraction of Linguistic Ideas. Cognitive Psychology, 2, 331-350.
Bransford, J. S. (1988). the Video Revolution and its Effects on Cognitive Development: Some Initial thoughts. In G. Foreman & P. Pufall (Eds.), Constructivism in the Computer Age. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Brown, J. S. (1989). Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning. . Educational Researcher, 18(1), pp. 32-42.
Dede, C. (2005). Planning for Neomillennial Learning Styles: Implications for Investments in Technology and Faculty. In D. G. Oblinger & J. L. Oblinger (Eds.), . Educating the Net Generation, Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/content.asp?page_id=6069&bhcp=1.
Downes, S. (2005). An Introduction to Connective Knowledge. In T. Hug (Ed) (2007). Media, Knowledge and Education. Exploring New Spaces, Relations and Dynmics in Digital Media Ecologies.
Ertmer, P. A. (n.d.). Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing Critical Features from an Instructional Design Perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), pp. 50-72.
Gagne, R. M. (1985, (4th ed)). The Conditions of Learning . New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Garvin, D. A. (1993). Building a Learning Organization. Harvard Business Review, 71 (4), 78-91.
Johnson, L. L. (2009 (ed.).). The Horizon Report. Austin, TX.: The New Merdia Consortium.
Knowles, M. (1968). Andragogy, not Pedagogy. Adult Leadership., 16(10), 350-352, 386.
Knowles, M. (1984). Andragogy in Action. San Francisco:: Jossey-Bass.
Koffka, K. (1924). The Growth of the Mind. (R. M. Ogden, Trans). London:: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner.
Kohler, W. (1947). Gestalt psychology: An Introduction to New Concepts in Modern Psychology. New York:: Liver Right. (Reprinted 1959, New American Library, New York. .
Lewin, K. (1935). A Dynamic Theroy of Personality. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Moslaw, A. H. (1959). New Knowledge in Human Values. . New York:: Harper and Row.
Ormond, J. E. (1999, (3rd. ed.)). Human Learning,. Upper Saddle Rive, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Piaget, J. (1985 (Oringinal work published 1996)). Equilibration of Cognitive Structure. Univeristy of Chicago Press.
Rogers, C. R. (Orginal printed 1969, 1994, (3rd ed)). Freedom to Learn. New York:: MacMillian.
Siemens, G. (2005). Connectivism: A Learning theory for the Digital Age. Internaltional Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 2(1).
Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and Human Behavior. New York:: Free Press.
Thorndike, E. (1927). The Measurement of Intelligent. New York:: Teachers College Press.

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My Reflection on Connectivism Learning

How has your network changed the way you learn? The ways that I have learned in the past has greatly been impacted by the ways that I am learning now. It is important for me to know how and where to locate learning resources and gather information that is readily available without going to my local library. At this point in my life, I appreciate the convenience of technology. Thanks to the digital age of the Internet and personal computers, I am able to learn from various sources such as  Wikipedia, forums, chat groups, eLearning/Distance learning, online communities, and the latest learning tool for me—blogging all from the comfort of my home.

In my current class, “Learning Theories and Instruction” I am engaging in a new learning path and knowledge-based skills not only applicable to me in the classroom but also in learning out-of-the classroom. As a former corporate trainer for adults learning, I was only interested in how best to create learning that was conducive to their needs, but the wealth of knowledge that I have acquired during this course has been Beneficial to me to use with all genre of learners including, but not limited to, my own learning needs.

Which digital tools best facilitate learning for you? I think the digital tools that work best for me is the Internet—wikis, blogs, web feed, eLearning, webinars, Distance learning as well as forums. I have found, since taking online classes that engaging all of these tools have really helped me in my ability to require and understand different learning theories and learning needs

 How do you gain new knowledge when you have questions? Now that I have been introduced to different ways in which to communicate, my favorite way to gain knowledge is via the Wikis, forums and blogs.

In what ways does your personal learning network support or refute the central tenets of connectivism? My personal learning networks have been very instrumental in providing the kind of learning experience for me to complete my education in the comfort of my home thanks to the digital age of technology. The fact that I am able to find information on any subject germane to my learning experience is also great.

Connectivism

A Social Network of various connections